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Potential Biomarker of Gluten Related Neurological Disorders | SciTechnol

Journal of Food and Nutritional Disorders.ISSN: 2324-9323

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Research Article, J Food Nutri Disor Vol: 9 Issue: 6

Potential Biomarker of Gluten Related Neurological Disorders

Abstract

Context: Gluten sensitivity corresponds to a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations including celiac disease and non-enteropathic based disorders. Among the latter conditions, neurologic disorders of unknown etiology seem frequently associated to anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA), usually called gluten neuropathies.

Objectives: We aimed to determine the clinical significance of AGA in neurologic diseases of unknown etiology.

Patients and Methods: We prospectively enrolled 60 patients with following conditions: peripheral neuropathy (n=16), Ischemic Stroke (n=18), ataxia (n=7), epilepsy (n=7), myopathy (n=3), Myelopathy (n=2), Multiple Sclerosis (n=1), Thrombophlebitis (n=1) and undefined clinical conditions (n=5), matched to 57 healthy controls. Patients and controls underwent a screening for IgG and IgA AGA using an immunoenzymatic method (ELISA-Gliadin, Orgentec®, threshold: 12IU/ml). In order to rule out an authentic celiac disease, IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGA) were performed in both patients and controls, using an ELISA method (DRG®, IgA-tTGA, Inc. USA, threshold: 10 IU/ml).

Results: The mean age of the patients was 43 ± 13.91 years (ranges: 13-67), versus 39.4 ± 9.12 (ranges: 19-58) for controls. Male to female sex-ratio was 0.7 for patients versus 2.1 for controls. IgG and/or IgA AGA were positive in 26.7% of cases (n=16) vs 15.8% (n=9) in controls, while IgA-tTGA was negative in all patients, but positive in one case among controls. Positive AGA cases corresponded to peripheral neuropathy (n=4), ataxia (n=3), ischemic stroke (n=3), myopathy (n=2), and one case for each of the following conditions: multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, cerebral thrombophlebitis and myelopathy. Among the positive AGA cases, IgA isotype was more prevalent, but IgG AGA titers were higher and clinically more relevant.

Conclusion: Our data give evidence that Gluten Sensitivity represents a potential cause of idiopathic neurologic diseases in young adults, particularly peripheral neuropathy, ataxia and ischemic stroke, and lesser in myopathy. AGA testing might be a suitable marker to screen for gluten neuropathies provided ruling out an atypical celiac disease. Further studies on bigger sample size are recommended, using additional relevant markers of gluten neurologic disorders.

Keywords: Neurologic disorders; Anti-gliadin antibodies; Gluten sensitivity

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