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Interpretation of the Sources of Radioactive Elements and Relationship between them by Using Multivariate Analyses in Anzali Wetland Area
The Anzali Wetland complex (37°23΄ to 37°37΄ E _ 49°19΄ to 49°35΄ N), is situated on the southwest shore of the Caspian Sea adjacent to Bandar-e-Anzali town on the northern boundary in Gilan province, northern Iran. The average radionuclide values for the 33 sampled points (26 deposit samples and 7 soil samples) were 24.66 Bq Kg-1 for Ra-226, 31.94 Bq Kg-1 for Th-232, 459.98 Bq Kg-1 for K-40, 3.72 Bq Kg-1 for U-235, and 11.66 Bq Kg-1 for Cs-137. Environmental problems (tourist zone sea-beach), agriculture waste (fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides especially from rice-fields), polluted rivers(10 biggest rivers) and industrial wastewater (30 main polluted factories) cause an anomaly in area. Correspondence analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis applied to the data matrix to evaluate analytical results. According to this methods, three category of elements is recognized: (1) Th-232, Ra-226 and K-40; (2) Cs-137; (3) U-235. About 10 tributary rivers flow into Anzali Wetland Complex and cause a total precipitation near to 1500 -2000 mm / year. This fact implies that there exists a high rate of changes in this area, and many factors and characters must contribute or influenced in Interpretation and analyses. With comparison of average activity in Iran, average values of 226Ra and 232Th in sediment samples, respectively are lower and higher than the average observed in Iran. By comparing average activity of elements in the Anzali wetland area is lower than the average data in the world that published by UNSCEAR in 2000, but amount of K range and average is higher than the world.
The Interest of Coherence from Radar SAR Images in the Follow-Up of Urban Extensions of Focşani City (Romania)
Usually, the coherence image obtained by processing SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images is indirectly used in the interferometry to identify and delimit different areas that disturb the phase of the radar wave. The phase plays the role of indicator and in the same time separator between areas where the elements within the pixel are unstable and the stable. Considering this principle, we use here these images with the purpose to follow the expansion of the city of Focşani, Romania (urban areas). The results show the very good coherence for the urban area, which appears in white in greyscale visualisation corresponding to maximum values of coherence. The analysis of the coherence images at different time intervals allowed us to characterise the stability of the Focşani city (without considerable extension) for almost 10 years (1995/2005). Instead, we distinguished many buildings that were multiplied towards the periphery and outside of the city. During the same period, we found out that in downtown, there were urban renovations represented by green spaces. We also found that the three pairs, which were processed by the image acquired the 01/31/2005 have a low coherence, which allows us to state that the rainfalls can be the cause of the incoherence. We also observed that the incoherence is more important within the pairs formed by ERS-1 and ERS- 2 than the pairs formed by ERS-2 and ERS-2, even if the time interval between them is 24 hours (the temporal decorrelation is null or identical). This study confirms the interest of the coherence image to identify the spatial and temporal decorrelations of the pairs processed by the interferometry technique (InSAR). The role of coherence images intervenes also to distinguish the urban areas from the green or water covered areas.
The Continents as Results of the Earth’ Global Geodynamics
The Continents’ specific geological structures and autonomous development in geological history are shown. The geological structures and composition of the continents and oceans’ earth crust are very different. The history of geological development and origin of these great parts of the Earth was also very different.
Land Surface Temperature Responses to Land Use Land Cover Dynamics
Land use and land cover (LULC) changes induced by human or natural processes drive biogeochemistry of the Earth influencing the climate at global as well as regional scales. Drastic changes in the land cover with the decline in vegetation and water bodies due to anthropogenic activities enhances the heat emission from land surface and atmospheric temperatures Increased land surface temperature (LST) is mainly due to increase in concentrated human activities, paved land cover or barren lands. Due to complexity of landscapes the sampling was difficult to derive LST and environmental response relationships. Temporal data acquired through space borne remote sensors has bridged the gap of temporal data for the entire earth surface. The current study explores the relation between surface biophysical parameters to sub-pixel thermal variations. The thermal infrared bands of remote sensing data help to retrieve LST, which are supplemented by ground based measurements. Analysis of LST with LULC indicates a negative correlation between vegetation indices and LST. The general trend in the ambient temperature of Uttara Kannada over the 31 year period was established. It clarifies that there was a fundamental drift of temperature rise in recent years, especially during the last decade.